注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

王小鲁的博客

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

独立影评人

网易考拉推荐

“野生”或第一代——2000年后中国电影新力量  

2011-12-14 06:04:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
 
活动时间:2011年12月18日--12月24日
 
“野生”或第一代——2000年后中国电影新力量
 “Wild” or first generation---the new drive in China’s film industry after 2000

前言:无名与造词法

王小鲁 

Forward: no name and coinage
Xiaolu Wang

      本次影展的主要内容是面对第六代导演之后、也就是2000年后开始进行创作的独立剧情片导演。这些导演多是70年代前后出生(本轮展映的导演年龄从1969年到1981年)。 
    The primary part of this film exhibition is focused on the period after the 6th generation film directors, who started creating independent feature films after 2000. Most of these directors were born around 1970s (the film directors in this film exhibition were born roughly in 1969-1981). What we need to further explain is that this film exhibition is only one part of the whole picture and the rest will be shown continuously in other ways.

      我们很谨慎的使用“70后”或“这一代”的概念。因为这会被看作宏大叙事的症状。中国电影自“第六代”后,再也没有分出一个“第七代”,由于电影人的学院师承不再那么明晰,中国电影的代文化被认为终结了。第六代之后的10多年来的新电影人是无名的。人们放弃了以代命名,某种程度上也放弃了以风格来对复杂的创作现象进行整合。但非常有趣,当初反对第六代之命名的导演或学者,多年之后仍在将“第六代”作为有价值的词使用。其实反对它和使用它都有特殊的语境,都具有特别的文化意义而不是自相矛盾。而当初“第六代”这样的命名客观上带来了言说的便利,也促进他们较快地获得公众的认知。
   The reason why we use the concept of “after 1970s” or “this generation” cautiously is because that might be regarded as a syndrome of grandeurs narration. In fact, after the “6th generation”, the “7th generation” in China’s film industry has never been classified and the transmission from masters to disciples in film academy has become indistinct. The generation culture in Chinese films is considered to be terminated. Over the past decade, many new film makers after 6th generation have no collective name. The ways to give names by means of both generation and of the style in integrating complex producing phenomenon had been abandoned. What makes it interesting is that, the film directors and scholars who initially objected to the use of 6th generation still attach special value to them years later. In fact, either objection or usage has its own unique context, with special cultural significance and no self-contradiction. In contrast, the way to name 6th generation not only brought convenience in language communication but also promoted the recognition in public.
 
   多年以后,旁观者会产生焦虑,因为无名,所以有言说的困难。无名者本人也会焦虑。无名者力图为自己单独命名,但是时代的喧嚣淹没了单个的作者。他们诉说着时代的重点,但是他们不是时代的重点。他们更多消失在了人海中,而事实上,许多导演的起点并不比当年第六代导演低。有一次我问王小帅导演:这新一代导演的文化境遇如何?他说,其实他们比我们惨多了,他们被淹没掉了。
    Years later, the bystanders would be concerned about the “no name” phenomenon because of the difficulty in referring to them. The same is true with the film makers themselves. The individual feature was eventually overwhelmed by the chaotic bustling of our times, even though they were trying to name themselves. They speak out of the importance of our times, while they themselves are not of importance and gradually come out of the attention. In fact, the starting points of their many films are not even lower than those made by the 6th generation film makers. Once I questioned Wang Xiaoshuai, “How is the cultural circumstance of your generation?” He replied that they are even at worse situation since their fame has been overwhelmed.
 
   无名的状况其实是一个文化失策。当然,它不仅仅是广告学意义上的失误,也是学术上的不作为,这可能削弱了我们的自我理解。新的时代追求微小叙事和零散化叙事,但这不该成为一个发寻事物之间关联或相似性的理由,也不能因此放弃一种阐释和深入理解的努力。
The condition of “no name” is an unwise move in terms of culture. Of course, this is not only an unwise step with regard to advertisement but also academic nonfeasance, which probably decreased our self-understanding. In a new era, mini-narration and sporadic narration are what we pursue; however, this should not hinder our progress to discover the connection and similarity between all matters, let alone abandon another effort to clarification.

 另外,在过去所有的对“代命名”的质疑中,核心在于怀疑不同作者美学共同性的难以归纳。今天来看,也许所谓代的划分主要不是一个美学统一性的概念——当然,它也并不拒绝承认在某些空间里具有一种有限的美学统一性。电影世代在中国的根本在于一个年龄与政治时段(每个时段有特定的文化教育)的相遇,是一个生理年龄与一个特定时代相遇所激发的文化表现。中国"代文化"的发达是因为政治与社会的不成熟。这个十年和下一个十年可能具有完全不一样的政治和时代精神,这反应在了创作里面。
    In addition, among all doubt about the “synonym to name” in the past, the core lies in the suspicion of the difficult conclusion on aesthetic commonality from different authors. From today viewpoints, the distinction between generations might not be a uniform concept in aesthetics. Film in China is mainly a concept related with age and political period, and a cultural manifestation on the meeting of biological age and specific times. The well-developed culture on “generation” is due to the immaturity of political and society development. Next decade may turn to be entirely different from the previous on both in terms of politics and zeitgeist, which was also reflected in film creation.

 当把镜头拉远,我们会看到每个时代的电影面貌的差异。这个面貌不仅仅在表达的内容——一个时代往往有一个时代的问题,还在于特殊年代的技术痕迹、镜头感甚至台词方式,它似乎无所不在又难以归纳。2000年也是一个临界点,那时候中国的“社会”正在前所未有的艰难生成,旧的已死去,新的正孕育。社会规则、电影规则与生活价值都难以确定。互联网精神的出现和电影介质的突变成就了一拨新的电影人。电影工业正在艰难地从胶片时代到非胶片时代转型:胶片电影工业已停滞,数字电影(包括dv)的合法性仍在探索。第六代之后电影学院培养的电影人很多进入了“电视电影”的行业,减少了电影导演的数量。全新身份的非学院专业的作者此时此地大量涌现。拍摄《嫦娥》的邹鹏说,我们都是“野生”的。数字技术在2000年后短短十年实现了从DV到HDV的发展,电影民主化时代开启。这些人是电影民主化和数字化后的第一代。
The difference between films in each period would be obvious in retrospection, which could be shown not only in contents, but also in the used technology, sense of camera shot and style of lyrics. They seem to be everywhere and difficult to summarize. In the critical point of year 2000, Chinese society had undergone the process of hard transformation, from the dead past to the newly reborn. It is also difficult to define social rules, film regulation and value of living. The emergence of internet spirit and the mutation of cinema media helped producing a new group of film makers. During the transformation from photographic era to non- photographic era in cinema industry, the legitimization of digital movies is still in process of exploring while the photographic film industry comes to a halt. Many graduate students from the Beijing Film Academy after 6th generation had entered “TV-cinema” industry, which caused the dwindling number of film directors. A large number of new film makers without professional academic background have been cropping up. Zou Peng, director of C hang’En, once said, “we are all wild”. Digital technology development turned from DV to HDV within only ten years. The democratization of film industry has begun and they are the first generation film democratization and digitalization. 

  当然,仍然有学院派在电影工业之外进行独立制作。但是互联网将学院派和野生派整合了起来,他们接受了共同的社会教育。而即使学院派,他们的融资模式和意识形态都已经不再具有过去工业体系里的特点,而是处于一种野外的自由、自生、自灭的状态。这是解放也是艰难的拓荒。这一批人促成了中国电影史上前所未有的一幕。
     Certainly, there is also an academism involved in independent creation not dedicated for film industry. However, the Internet makes it available to integrate the academism and non-academism which are subject to the common social education into one. But even for the academism, the funding models and the ideologies have been not provided with such features that had been equipped with before, and are in a wild state, i.e., they run its own course. It is a revolution and also a tough reclamation. The batch of the people kicks off an unprecedented stage in the film history of China. 

         此次影展曾希望命名为“贾樟柯之后”。虽然有张元和王小帅等人在前,但是贾樟柯是电影民主化的更深刻的示范者。我倾向于认为他是中国电影界的励志型人物。他启发了一批人,比如符新华。另外,贾樟柯的电影表达方向实现了另外一种鼓动:基层社会和拍摄自己身边的世界。之后的导演来自各个角落,于是带来了各样的社会面貌。随后出现的一批作品表现出来前所未有的现实质感和纪录片特性,在某个局部形成了一种特殊的具有相似性的景观:
    The film festival is originally expected to be named as “Successors After Jia Zhangke”; maybe it is accurate because Jia Zhangke is the earliest demonstrator of film democratization. I tend to consider that he is an inspiring figure in the film field of China who has inspired lots of the people including Fu Xinhua. Jia Zhangke started from non-film without use of academic resource and film studio resource. Jia Zhangke’s film expression direction realizes another encouragement: grassroots-level society and shotting of the world around us. The succeeding directors are from various corners of the world; hence, it results in different social facades. The batch of the works created thereafter is embodied in the trace of reality and features of documentaries and bring about a special but similar landscape: 

     比如一大批社会写实派电影的出现。它们致力于描绘失去主体性的个人。这些电影的人物都不是存在主义式的人物,人物的选择并不体现人性的深度和魅力,而往往是指向外在环境压力的紧张感。因为他们都是被动的生存者,于是个性的价值在这样的情节里并不大,电影很少遵循人格的逻辑而更多受命于环境的逻辑。这是缺点还是特点?我认为它们是时代之声与社会之声,是导演对于自我生存境遇的理解。这本身是对于传统电影观念的再定义。从符新华的《客村街》到甘小二、彭韬的作品,都有这样的气质。甚至《Hello,树先生》也更强烈的致力于环境压迫的描写。应亮《好猫》的结尾,广播里不停地在播放寻人启事。丢失的人太多了。而耿军的《青年》里,有一幕是马被放在车上,热血青年则打着石膏坐在轮椅里。
For example, an uprising of a batch of realists for films. They are dedicated for describing the individuals losing the subjectivity. The characters in these films are non-existentialists. For selection of the characters, it would like to display the tension from exterior environment pressure rather than the depth and charm of humanity. Because they are passive existents, the value of the humanity is not so significant in such circumstances. Films prefer being subject to logic of environment to logic of humanity. Should we consider it a disadvantage or an advantage? In my opinion, they are the voices of the time and the society as well as the understanding of the directors on their own living circumstances. The works from Fu Xinhua (Stranger’s Street), Gan Xiaoer and Peng Tao are of this kind of quality. In the ending of Ying Liang’s Good Cats, lots of posters were delivered in the broadcasting; actually, there were many persons lost. In the Youth of Di Jun, there was a scene that a horse was put in a car and a hot-blooded young man in plaster was seated in a wheel chair. 

    如果说第六代导演早期作品曾具有一种现代主义和现实主义交织的风貌。这一拨导演的一大批作品则是往往是更加现实主义的,他们致力于外在环境的准确描绘。他们不像电影导演,更像影像人类学家。这本身是反商业的,因为这种电影不是圆梦的电影,很多作品用最多的精力提醒我们对于社会环境进行了解、判断和批判。
If the early works of the 6th generation of directors are of modernism. The works of this batch of directors are realistic. They devote themselves to accurate description of the exterior environment. It is seems that they are more image anthropologists than film directors. For itself, it is anti-commercial and this kind of films are not designed for fulfilling the dream, most of which are to remind us of delivering the understanding and judgments on the social environment with the most energy.  

     上面所叙述的,显然并非2000年后第一代导演的全景和唯一特点。此次参展的赵晔算70后人,但是他的童年是在深圳度过,深圳有中国第一家麦当劳,他是吃麦当劳长大的。他与80后的生长经历反而具有相似性。但我们仍然将导演放在70年代的视野里来考察,它所揭示的是同时代人生存发展的不均衡性。本次展览的其他影片,也客观提示着简单归纳的无效性。

However, this is obviously not a full view of the 1st generation of directors after 2000. Zhao Ye, who attended the festival, is born in 1970’s, but he had his childhood in Shenzhen. The first McDonald for China was established in Shenzhen. He being brought up by eating McDonald, his experience is similar to the growth experience of 1980’s. But we still consider the directors from the aspect of 1970’s. What we exhibit is the unbalance incurred from the existence of the contemporaries. The ineffectiveness of simple inductions is also objectively indicated by other films advanced in the festival. 
  
     本次展映将分期进行,将展映的影片包括《草芥》、《牛皮》、《老狗》、《血蝉》、《hello!树先生》、《光南的栗子》、《嫦娥》、《八卦》、《好猫》、《寒假》、《观音山》、《青年》、《蚂蚁村》??还将包括宁浩等人的作品。本期影展只放映了7部,远非全景,以后将以各种方式继续展现。本次影展以放映、演讲和交流为一个学术单元。希望前来的导演都能做一个关于电影自传的讲座。让2000年后中国青年电影人表达他遭遇的电影环境(资金的、制度的)与自我成长(美学的、精神的)的历程,我们希望这是对新电影生态的多方位展示。这种密集的呈现希望能够提供一种加深理解电影文化和自我理解的材料。它不是一个学术结果的宣布,而只是一个启发,希望它能提供一个对话的现场和思考的机会。  
The films showed on the festival are: The Weed, Sauna on Moon, The Gossip, Good Cats, Oxhide, Winter Vocation, Old Dog, Little Moth, Hello! Mr. Tree, Last Chestnuts, Buddha Mountain and Gone with Honor. The festival integrates shows, speeches and exchanges into an academic unit. It is hoped that the directors attending the festival could make a lecture about biographies of the films. We hope that it is a relatively intensive exhibition for a new film ecology so that young film-makers of China after 2000 can express the film environments (including funds and systems) they suffered and their own growth experience. It is hoped that the intensive exhibition can provide with the materials to deepen the understanding on film culture and self-understanding. It is more an inspiration than a announcement of an academic result. Hence, we hope that it can provide an opportunity for establishment of a platform for exchanges and considerations.
  评论这张
 
阅读(1460)| 评论(2)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017